The types of rails are usually distinguished by weight. For example, the 50-rail we often say refers to the rail with a weight of 50kg/m, and so on. There are 38 rails, 43 rails, 50 rails, 60 rails, 75 rails, etc. Of course, There are also 24 tracks and 18 tracks, but those are all old Chinese calendars. Among them, the rails with 43 rails and above are generally called heavy rails.
By manufacturing process
According to the classification of manufacturing process, steel rails can be mainly divided into hot-rolled steel rails and heat-treated steel rails. In fact, the rails are produced by the hot rolling process. The heat-treated rails are heat-treated again after the hot-rolled rails. There are two types of online heat treatment and offline heat treatment. Online heat treatment has become the mainstream, which is more energy-saving and more efficient.
Rail is a complex and alloy, in addition to the main component iron (Fe), there are five elements, carbon (C), manganese (Mn), silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and of course There are some decisive trace elements vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), and some rare earth elements. The most important thing to consider about the performance of rails are three items: strength, hardness, and toughness (usually measured by elongation after fracture), which are related to each other. Among them, the most important thing is strength, so there is also a method of classifying rails according to strength grades. We will see 780Mp, 880Mp, as high as 1450Mp, etc., and choose according to different needs. Generally speaking, the strength of subway rails is between 880-1180Mp.
Classification by use is basically the most common practice. Now all kinds of rail transit construction are in the ascendant, and the uses of steel rails are also diverse.
Let’s talk about the scope of the national railway first.
The first is the high-speed rail, which basically uses 60 rails for the tracks in the station (50 rails for some parking lines), and 60 rails for the main line (including station lines and auxiliary lines). The size requirements of each part are higher.
There are also ordinary railways that are also basic depots and parking lots with 50 tracks and 60 tracks on the main line.
And then there are some special railways. The first is the heavy-haul railway, similar to the Daqin, Shuohuang railway and Shenhua coal transportation line, etc. It is characterized by the large total weight of the train axle, and the load of one train can reach more than 10,000 tons. This kind of railway generally uses special manufacturing 75 rails, which can greatly increase the service life. The second is the alpine railway, specifically the Qinghai-Tibet line, which crosses the permafrost zone and has high requirements for the cold resistance and corrosion resistance of the rails, and uses specially manufactured 60 rails.
Then there is the subway, which is currently hot in the market. Domestic subways basically use 50 rails for depots and 60 rails for main lines. Of course, the old subway main lines use 50 rails.
There are also trams that are currently selected by many small cities. The tram is easy to derail due to its small wheels, small turning radius and small turnout number, so the grooved rail with its own guard rail is selected.
The rest of the other railways do not belong to the General Administration of Railways or local governments, but belong to enterprises, so the standards are not uniform, the gauge is not standard, and there are no certain rules for the type of rails. On, such as many large enterprises, steel mills, shipyards and so on.
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