The type of rail is expressed in kilograms of rail mass per meter of length. The rails used on my country’s railways are 75kg/m, 60kg/m, 50kg/m, 43kg/m and 38kg/m.
The section shape of the rail adopts an I-shaped section with bending resistance, which is composed of three parts: the rail head, the rail waist and the rail bottom. In order to make the rail better withstand the forces from all sides and the necessary strength conditions, the rail should have sufficient height, its head and bottom should have sufficient area and height, and the waist and bottom should not be too thin.
Among the above types of rails, the 38kg/m rail has been discontinued, the 60kg/m and 50kg/m rails are laid on the main trunk line, and the 43kg/m rail is generally laid on the station line and special line. For heavy-haul railways and railways in particularly busy sections, 75kg/m rails are laid.
In addition, in order to meet the needs of structures such as turnouts, extra-large bridges and seamless lines, my country’s railways also use special-section (asymmetrical I-shaped with the central axis) rails. The most commonly used rails are short and special section rails, referred to as AT rails.
Rail shape specification
The length and other geometric dimensions and tolerances of the rails are stipulated by the relevant standards for light and heavy rails in “8”.
(1) The rail after rolling should be straight, and there should be no significant bending and twisting. The local bending and torsion of light and heavy rails and their correction deformation, the inclination of rail end faces, etc., shall not exceed the standard requirements.
(2) The surface of the rail should be clean and smooth, and there should be no defects such as cracks, scabs, scratches, etc.; the end surfaces should not have shrinkage holes and interlayers. The allowable defects on the overall surface of the light and heavy rails and the extent of their geometrical quantities shall not exceed the standard requirements.
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